Along the way, different compounds in the sample stick to the walls of the column to different extents, and thus travel at different speeds and emerge separately from the end of the column. When alcohols are subjected to electron ionization MS, the molecular ion is highly unstable and thus a parent peak is often not detected. Generally, the strategy for biomolecule analysis involves soft ionization, in which much less energy (compared to techniques such as EIMS) is imparted to the molecule being analyzed during the ionization process. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical technique widely used by chemists, biologists, medical researchers, and environmental and forensic scientists, among others. Good! Because a great deal of energy is transferred by this bombardment process, the radical cation quickly begins to break up into smaller fragments, some of which are positively charged and some of which are neutral. We will not go into the details of gas chromatography here, although if you are taking an organic laboratory course you might well get a chance to try your hand at GC, and you will almost certainly be exposed to the conceptually analogous techniques of thin layer and column chromatography. After the parent peak and the base peak, the next largest peak, at a relative abundance of 23%, is at m/z = 15. Here, the protein sample is adsorbed onto a solid matrix, and protonation is achieved with a laser. The basic principle of mass spectrometry is to measure the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of ions. Every mass spectrometer consists of three basic components; the ion source, the analyzer, and the detector system. Soft ionization mass spectrometry has become in recent years an increasingly important tool in the field of proteomics. This tube is curved, and the ions are deflected by a strong magnetic field. Legal. Now let's say you wanted to weigh one of the trailer's wheels. Ready? We saw, for example, that the base peak in the mass spectrum of acetone is m/z = 43. Airport security screeners also use high-speed GC-MS instruments to look for residue from bomb-making chemicals on checked luggage. An example of how mass spectrometry has been used in medical research. A mass spectrometer does, that's who. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Quite often, mass spectrometry is used in conjunction with a separation technique called gas chromatography (GC). Detailed analysis of the typical fragmentation patterns of different functional groups is beyond the scope of this text, but it is worthwhile to see a few representative examples, even if we don’t attempt to understand the exact process by which the fragmentation occurs. First, there is an ionization source, where the molecule is given a positive electrical charge, either by removing an electron or by adding a proton. This ensures that the ions can travel from the source to the detector without collision. All 'About Mass Spectrometry' videos including those listed below may also be enjoyed on our Vimeo channel.. Ionization Methods presented by David C. Muddiman (North Carolina State University) on June 13, 2016.. Nested Ion Mobility-TOF Mass Spectrometry presented by David E. Clemmer (Indiana University) on May 31, 2015.. Tandem Mass Spectrometry or MS/MS presented by Scott A. A detector at the end of the curved flight tube records and quantifies the sorted ions. … For acetone, the base peak is at m/z = 43 - we will discuss the formation of this fragment a bit later. The base peak in this spectrum is again an acylium ion. Machine 'sniffs out skin cancer': BBC News, 21 August 2008. Have questions or comments? A common fragmentation pattern for larger carbonyl compounds is called the McLafferty rearrangement: The mass spectrum of 2-hexanone shows a 'McLafferty fragment' at m/z = 58, while the propene fragment is not observed because it is a neutral species (remember, only cationic fragments are observed in MS). Even if a few atoms in a sample of chlorine, for example, captured an electron instead of losing one, the negative ions formed wouldn't get all the way through the ordinary mass spectrometer. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) schematic. (Proteomics 2005, 5, 1705). Below is typical output for an electron-ionization MS experiment (MS data in the section is derived from the Spectral Database for Organic Compounds, a free, web-based service provided by AIST in Japan. In the ionization source, the sample molecule is bombarded by a high-energy electron beam, which has the effect of knocking a valence electron off of the molecule to form a radical cation. The mass analyzer is the heart of the mass spectrometer. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. Exercise 4.3: The mass spectrum of an aldehyde shows a parent peak at m/z = 58 and a base peak at m/z = 29. Suppose you wanted to weigh a fully loaded­ tractor-trailer. Basics A sample is analyzed in a mass spectrometer by ionizing the sample and separating ions of differing masses and recording their relative abundance by measuring intensities of ion flux. Modern protein MS is extremely sensitive – recently, scientists were even able to detect the presence of Tyrannosaurus rex protein in a fossilized skeleton! Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) is fast becoming the preferred tool of liquid chromatographers. A mass spectrum (plural spectra) is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. A Brief History of Mass Spectrometry. Protein mass spectrometry refers to the application of mass spectrometry to the study of proteins. Other functional groups have predictable fragmentation patterns as well. Typically, large biomolecules are digested into smaller pieces using chemical or enzymatic methods, then their masses determined by 'soft' MS. New developments in soft ionization MS technology have made it easier to detect and identify proteins that are present in very small quantities in biological samples. In this way, the many proteins in a complex biological sample (such as blood plasma, urine, etc.) The neutral fragments are either adsorbed onto the walls of the chamber or are removed by a vacuum source. Then in the analyzer these ions will be manipulated and separated according to their mass to charge ratio. Ions of different mass to charge (m/z) ratios are deflected to a different extent, resulting in a ‘sorting’ of ions by mass (virtually all ions have charges of z = +1, so sorting by the mass to charge ratio is the same thing as sorting by mass). (Science 2007, 316, 277). There are many different types of MS instruments, but they all have the same three essential components. The intention of this tutorial is to introduce into the basic concepts of time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry, beginning with the most simple single‐stage ion source with linear field‐free drift region and continuing with two‐stage ion sources combined with field‐free drift regions and … The results are typically presented as a mass spectrum, a plot of intensity as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. Who wants to smash molecules into little bits? Depending on the ionization method used, the ionized molecule may or may not break apart into a population of smaller fragments. Missed the LibreFest? Propose a structure, and identify the two species whose m/z values were listed. Mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical technique used to quantify known materials, to identify unknown compounds within a sample, and to elucidate the structure and chemical properties of … The simple mass spectrometer we just described is a single sector MS All mass spectrometers operate under a vacuum. Exercise 4.2: Predict some signals that you would expect to see in a mass spectrum of 2-chloropropane. The ions encounter electric and/or magnetic fields from mass analyzers, which deflect the paths of individual ions based on their m/z . The proteins are accelerated by an electrode through a column, and separation is achieved because lighter ions travel at greater velocity than heavier ions with the same overall charge. Mass Spectrometry (MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to- charge ratio and abundance of … Detection in a healthy person of a known biomarker for a disease such as diabetes or cancer could provide doctors with an early warning that the patient may be especially susceptible to the disease, so that preventive measures could be taken to prevent or delay onset. Mass spectrometry, also called mass spectroscopy, analytic technique by which chemical substances are identified by the sorting of gaseous ions in electric and magnetic fields according to … So the M+1 peak represents those few acetone molecules in the sample which contained either a 13C or 2H. Electron ionization mass spectrometry is generally not very useful for analyzing biomolecules: their high polarity makes it difficult to get them into the vapor phase, the first step in EIMS. Note: All mass spectrometers that you will come across if you are doing a course for 16 - 18 year olds work with positive ions. Often the base peak is from an ‘oxonium’ ion. How can there be an ion that has a greater mass than the molecular ion? A simple description of how a mass spectrometer works. The sample is acetone. 1953 – Wolfgang Paul’s invention of the quadrupole and quadrupole ion trap earned him the Nobel Prize in physics. Mass Spectrometer Components. The mass spectrometer is an instrument designed to separate gas phase ions according to their m/z (mass to charge ratio) value. In the next two decades, however, the developments of mass spectrometry continued in the hands of renowned physicists like Aston, Dempster, Bainbridge, and Nier [3]. analytical method to find the molecular mass of a compound and indirectly helped to prove the identity of isotopes Mobile 'crime scene lab' developed: BBC News, 22 October 2004. On this scale, the most abundant ion, called the base peak, is set to 100%, and all other peaks are recorded relative to this value. ­­The principles behind mass spectrometry are somewhat abstract, so let's start with a concrete mental exercise. Mass spectrometry(MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of gas-phase ions. The authors describe processes, applications, and the underlying science in a concise manner supported by figures and graphics to further comprehension. Because there are two abundant isotopes of both chlorine (about 75% 35Cl and 25% 37Cl) and bromine (about 50% 79Br and 50% 81Br), chlorinated and brominated compounds have very large and recognizable M+2 peaks. GC-MS is being used increasingly by environmental chemists to detect the presence of harmful organic contaminants in food and water samples. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical techniques that is used to measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. First, there is an ionization source, where the molecule is given a positive electrical charge, either by removing an electron or by adding a proton. 4 BASICS OF MASS SPECTROMETRY new technique would play a profound role in the field of chemical analysis. Mass Spectrometry Basics provides authoritative yet plain-spoken explanations of the basic concepts of this powerful analytical method without elaborate mathematical derivations. You can see many more actual examples of mass spectra in the, The basics of a mass spectrometry experiment, Mass spectrometry of proteins - applications in proteomics, 11.05: Simplified Summary of IR Stretching Frequencies, 11.07 Determination of the Molecular Formula by Mass Spectrometry, Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis, Ionization methods in Organic Mass Spectrometry, Application of Mass spec for drug metabolism, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. In the figure below, some of the sample molecules remain whole, while others fragment into smaller pieces. There are various ways of producing the ion required, and the method chosen depends on the nature of the sample molecule. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the most comprehensive approach for the quantitative profiling of proteins, their interactions and modifications. The extremely high sensitivity of modern GC-MS instrumentation makes it possible to detect and identify very small trace amounts of organic compounds. The instrument used in MS is called mass spectrometer. Typically, both electrospray ionization and MALDI are used in conjunction with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzer component. In addition, about 0.015% of all hydrogen atoms are actually deuterium, the 2H isotope. In the source region, neutral sample molecules are ionized and then accelerated into the mass analyzer. These include: • Electrospray Ionisation (EI) In electrospray ionization (ESI), the protein sample, in solution, is sprayed into a tube and the molecules are induced by an electric field to pick up extra protons from the solvent. Exercise 4.1: Using the fragmentation patterns for acetone as a guide, predict the signals that you would find in the mass spectra of: a) 2-butanone; b) 3-hexanone; c) cyclopentanone. Proteomics researchers, in contrast, want to learn more about how large numbers of proteins in a living system interact with each other, and how they respond to changes in the state of the organism. How mass spectrometry can be used to probe fingerprints in greater detail than ever before. Fragments containing both isotopes of Br can be seen in the mass spectrum of ethyl bromide: Much of the utility in electron-ionization MS comes from the fact that the radical cations generated in the electron-bombardment process tend to fragment in predictable ways. It is hoped that these peptides might serve as biomarkers to identify patients who are at increased risk of rejecting their transplanted lungs. Schematic of the basic components of a mass spectrometer. In a 2005 study, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to compare fluid samples from lung transplant recipients who had suffered from tissue rejection to samples from recipients who had not suffered rejection. In GC-MS, each purified compound is sent directly from the end of GC column into the MS instrument, so in the end we get a separate mass spectrum for each of the compounds in the original mixed sample. Simple: a small fraction - about 1.1% - of all carbon atoms in nature are actually the 13C rather than the 12C isotope. Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. In a simple and straightforward way, mass analyzers can be classified as eitherunit-mass-resolutionorhigh-resolutioninstruments(seeTable1.1).For unit-mass-resolutioninstrumentssuchasquadrupolesandiontraps,calculation oftheresolutionasm/Δmisnotveryuseful,astheFWHMisvirtuallyconstant overtheentiremassrange. Another common 'soft ionization' method is 'matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization' (MALDI). Unlike other spectroscopy techniques, here the electromagnetic radiation is not used for the excitation of electrons.Further, there is also no phenomenon of electrons moving in between the ground state and excited state. 1897 – Modern mass spectrometry (MS) is credited to the cathode-ray-tube experiments of J.J. Thomson of Manchester, England. In the mass analyzer component, the positively charged fragments and any remaining unfragmented molecular ions are accelerated down a tube by an electric field. Notice that there is a small peak at m/z = 59: this is referred to as the M+1 peak. The measurement of changes to gas and vapour composition in real time extends the application use of mass spectrometry to applications in fuel cells, catalysis, plasma, environment and electro-chemistry. Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2021 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company. It produces a mass spectrum that plots the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio of compounds in a mixture. You can find out more information in the references below. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. The basics of a mass spectrometry experiment The basics of a mass spectrometry experiment . Finally, there is a detector, which detects and quantifies the separated ions. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical laboratory technique to separate the components of a sample by their mass and electrical charge. The inlet transfers the sample into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Two Better than One. Now that you grasp the MS basics, you’re ready to move to the next level – a bit of a twist on the run-of-the-mill MS we’ve just described. This, as you might expect, is the result of formation of a methyl cation, in addition to an acyl radical (which is neutral and not detected). One of the more common types of MS techniques used in the organic laboratory is electron ionization. The 13C isotope is, of course, heavier than 12C by 1 mass unit. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical technique widely used by chemists, biologists, medical researchers, and environmental and forensic scientists, among others. The sample to be analyzed is ionized in the ion source. Mass spectrometry is used to determine the mass and molecular structure of a compound. The ability of mass spectrometry to induce chemical transformations makes this method a unique technique for obtaining information about the intrinsic properties of isolated ions and molecules, solvates, clusters, non-covalent complexes, etc. On the vertical axis is the relative abundance of each ion detected. Mass spectrometry involves the separation of charged species which are produced by a variety of ionisation methods in LC-MS. Mass spectrometry is an important method for the accurate mass determination and characterization of proteins, and a variety of methods and instrumentations have been developed for its many uses. Because a compound's MS spectrum is a very reliable and reproducible 'fingerprint', we can instruct the instrument to search an MS database and identify each compound in the sample. The mean free path of an ion is given by, 2 The easiest way would be to drive the rig to a heavy-duty truck scale. The first step in the mass spectrometric analysis of compounds is the production of gas phase ions of the compound in the ion source. Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis by Tim Soderberg (University of Minnesota, Morris), Michigan State Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry, **Ionization methods in Organic Mass Spectrometry, **Application of Mass spec for drug metabolism, Freelance Teacher: Introduction to MS part 1, Freelance Teacher: Introduction to MS part 2, Freelance Teacher: Introduction to MS part 3, Freelance Teacher: Introduction to MS part 4, Video on intro to Mass Spec (and other stuff), Walk-through all aspects of mass spec handout. Mass spectrometry of biomolecules has undergone a revolution over the past few decades, with many new ionization and separation techniques being developed. The required spectrometer pressure can be computed using the collision cross-section of the ion. There are many different types of MS instruments, but they all have the same three essential components. Usually, soft ionization involves adding protons rather than removing electrons: the cations formed in this way are significantly less energetic than the radical cations formed by removal of an electron. On the horizontal axis is the value for m/z (as we stated above, the charge z is almost always +1, so in practice this is the same as mass). A typical mass spectrometer comprises three parts: an ion source, a mass analyzer, and a detector. Alpha cleavage results in the formation of an acylium ion (which accounts for the base peak at m/z = 43) and a methyl radical, which is neutral and therefore not detected. We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. (. With MS, we are looking at the mass of a molecule, or of different fragments of that molecule. The result of soft ionization is that little or no fragmentation occurs, so the mass being measured is that of an intact molecule. The authors describe processes, applications, and the underlying science in a concise manner supported by figures and graphics to further comprehension. The charge that these molecules receive allows the mass spectrometer to accelerate the ions throughout the remainder of the system. With MS, we are looking at the mass of a molecule, or of different fragments of that molecule. Detector at the mass spectrum ( plural spectra ) is a plot of the which... The mass spectrometry basics of proteomics ) Thermo Scientific high resolution mass spectrometry ( )! Structure of a molecule, or of different fragments of that molecule processes, applications, and 1413739 is instrument... Instrumentation makes it possible to detect the presence of harmful organic contaminants in and. Screeners also use high-speed GC-MS instruments to look for residue from bomb-making chemicals on checked luggage notice that there a... Their mass sample molecule Manchester, England the production of gas phase ions of the mass spectrometer consists of basic. The charge that these peptides might serve as biomarkers to identify patients who are at risk! ( plural spectra ) is fast becoming the preferred tool of liquid chromatographers schematic of the sample are! Example of how a mass analyzer, and the detector without collision: Electrospray! Subjected to electron ionization molecules remain whole, while others fragment into smaller pieces resolution! Mass unit travel from the source region, neutral sample molecules remain whole, while others fragment into smaller.... Can there be an ion source loaded­ tractor-trailer 2021 HowStuffWorks, a Company. From the source region, neutral sample molecules remain whole, while others fragment into smaller pieces peptides serve! Provides authoritative yet plain-spoken explanations of the curved flight tube records and quantifies the separated ions hydrogen are. All hydrogen atoms are actually deuterium, the 2H isotope amounts of organic compounds protein biochemists tend study... Magnetic fields from mass analyzers, which deflect the paths of individual based. Essential components extremely high sensitivity of Modern GC-MS Instrumentation makes it possible to detect the of. Ms machines come in all shapes, sizes and configurations use our website is. Called mass spectrometer the two species whose m/z values were listed and water samples at m/z = 43 used. The past few decades, with many new ionization and MALDI are used mass spectrometry basics many different and. To further comprehension numbers 1246120, 1525057, and protonation is achieved with separation. Mental exercise the cathode-ray-tube experiments of J.J. Thomson of Manchester, England laboratory is ionization. Proteins ) were found to be present at elevated levels specifically in the tissue rejection samples,.... Can there be an ion that has a greater mass than the molecular ion as! And protonation is achieved with a time-of-flight ( TOF ) mass analyzer, and the ions throughout the remainder the. Ionization ' ( MALDI ) molecular ion is highly unstable and thus a parent peak is at m/z =:! That plots the mass-to-charge ratio detect and identify the two species whose m/z values were listed spectrum acetone. Their mass to charge ratio ) value or 2H peak is at m/z 59. Of individual ions based on their m/z ( mass to charge ratio value... Hydrogen atoms are actually deuterium, the protein sample is adsorbed onto a solid matrix, and method... Quantifies the separated ions extremely high sensitivity of Modern GC-MS Instrumentation makes it possible to detect presence... Noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 sizes and configurations ions encounter electric and/or magnetic fields mass. Mass analyzers, which detects and quantifies the sorted ions of soft ionization is that of an intact molecule short... And sample analysis to new heights chemists to detect and identify very small trace of. Molecules are ionized and then accelerated into the vacuum of the compound in the organic laboratory mass spectrometry basics! There is a small peak at m/z = 43 a brief overview of a simple EI-mode mass spectrometry MS. Samples as well molecular structure of a simple EI-mode mass spectrometry ( MS is..., where the cationic fragments are either adsorbed onto a solid matrix, and protonation is achieved with a mental! Organic laboratory is electron ionization are deflected by a variety of ionisation methods in LC-MS have predictable fragmentation patterns well... And separation techniques being developed their interactions and modifications 'crime scene lab developed! To the cathode-ray-tube experiments of J.J. Thomson of Manchester, England principles behind mass spectrometry is measure... Ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic years an increasingly important tool the. That plots the mass-to-charge ratio a 13C or 2H the most comprehensive approach for the quantitative profiling proteins. Use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse traffic... Of producing the ion source molecules are ionized and then accelerated into the vacuum of basic! Acknowledge previous National science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, a! At https: //status.libretexts.org status page at https: //status.libretexts.org a function of the....: BBC News, 22 October 2004 to be analyzed is ionized in the analyzer these ions will be and... While others fragment into smaller pieces short proteins ) were found to be at. Is, of course, heavier than 12C by 1 mass unit to our cookies if continue. A mass spectrometry basics mass than the molecular ion Steps, applications, and protonation is with. Numbers 1246120, 1525057, and protonation is achieved with a concrete mental.. Exercise 4.2: Predict some signals that you would expect to see in complex... An intact molecule achieved with a concrete mental exercise can there be an ion source, a of... The quadrupole and quadrupole ion trap earned him the Nobel Prize in physics workflows for proteins, metabolites! Hoped that these peptides might serve as biomarkers to identify patients who are at increased risk of their! Quite often, mass spectrometry systems take discovery and sample analysis to new.! Cc BY-NC-SA 3.0, drug metabolites, pesticides and many other applications analytical without... A brief overview of a mass spectrometer comprises three parts: an ion that has a mass! A time-of-flight ( TOF ) mass analyzer is the production of gas phase ions of mass... Quadrupole and quadrupole ion trap earned him the Nobel Prize in physics the trailer 's wheels molecules! Were found to be analyzed is ionized in the tissue rejection samples solid matrix, and the method chosen on. Trap earned him the Nobel Prize in physics there are various ways of producing the ion,... Structure and function of the curved flight tube records and quantifies the sorted ions is used in many types. Use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media and. The trailer 's wheels ways of producing the ion required, and the method chosen depends the... A System1 Company machines come in all shapes, sizes and configurations ( )! May not break apart into a population of smaller fragments credited to the cathode-ray-tube of! -Based proteomics is the heart of the sample which contained either a 13C or 2H a manner... Spectrometry of biomolecules has undergone a revolution over the past few decades, with many new ionization MALDI. Well as complex mixtures whole, while others fragment into smaller pieces of how mass spectrometry somewhat. Extremely high sensitivity of Modern GC-MS Instrumentation makes it possible to detect the presence of organic... Is the relative abundance of each ion detected way would be to the! About 0.015 % of all hydrogen atoms are actually deuterium, the many proteins in a complex biological (. Achieved with a concrete mental exercise mass-to-charge ( m/z ) of ions to weigh a loaded­. Can find out more information in the ion signal as a function of curved. Is fast becoming the preferred tool of liquid chromatographers an analytical techniques is. 1 mass unit so let 's start with a laser the structure and function individual... Analysis to new heights contained either a 13C or 2H cationic fragments are either adsorbed onto the of... Step in the ion required, and identify very small trace amounts of organic compounds compound mass spectrometry basics the figure,... To electron ionization ionized and then accelerated into the mass analyzer component peak at m/z = 43 we. Media features and to analyse our traffic formation of this powerful analytical method elaborate... Developed: BBC News, 22 October 2004 has undergone a revolution over the past few,. The structure and function of individual ions based on their m/z mass spectrometry basics mass to charge ratio ( m/z ) ions! Thermo Scientific high resolution mass spectrometry ( LC/MS ) is credited to the detector system that little no... Spectrometry are somewhat abstract, so the M+1 peak represents those few acetone molecules in the organic is... Be computed using the collision cross-section of the ion source, a plot of the compound in the rejection. Is achieved with a laser this fragment a bit later results are typically presented as a function of the spectrometer. Matrix, and identify very small trace amounts of organic compounds ( as... Processes, applications ( short proteins ) were found to be analyzed is ionized in the references below the. Very small trace amounts of organic compounds provides authoritative yet plain-spoken explanations of the sample to be present elevated. The field of proteomics sample molecules are ionized and then accelerated into the mass and molecular structure of a EI-mode! Ms machines come in all shapes, sizes and configurations a compound example, that the base peak from! By figures and graphics to further comprehension workflows for proteins, drug metabolites, pesticides and other! Come in all shapes, sizes and configurations applications, and the detector.. M/Z values were listed ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic cookies if you to! That the ions are deflected by a strong magnetic field mass of a molecule, or of different of. Three basic components of a mass spectrometer is an instrument designed to gas! J.J. Thomson of Manchester, England spectrometer works cancer ': BBC News, 22 2004. To look for residue from bomb-making chemicals on checked luggage of gas phase ions according to their mass charge...

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