What is the average number of faults occurring during the first 1000 hours of operation? Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. 81 provides the answer to the question: © 2013 The Author(s). x�W�n7��+*�� �jn�dNq�� #r2�F�D�d������O�_�q��͂5�&��ZKO�����/8C>z���;z������H:��5�]3X����.j���Pdj3�LQs����d�t�-u��Mt�`�Mk�b�!85�����ν���k����f��^��I�!�� ��%����^��t��&�j�5J�C�M��zK?����>Ch�0xZZ�ڈ?Zm�j�J�[��{j^,h G�3rh��P��Ǫ�X����6�;������_�(g1)�����-6���OZ���W*�왢�T�ބ6�n8��%�P���>�n��]7 -Ҭ�]mc��v2��� �0��gi�̺x��\�7ܣ�k]O:�,W��`� A well-known special case of the general model of minimal repair, is obtained if the failure time Tis a random variable with exponential distribution, with failure rate λ. ν(nu), degrees of freedom or deg_freedom, we use the equation described previously where r = number of failures or rejects: ν=2(r +1)=2r +2. Hi Philip, I too am frustrated that this formula continues to dominate reliability work, it shouldn’t. To calculate availability, use the formula of MTBF divided by (MTBF + MTTR). • Reliability - The ability of a system and its parts to perform its mission without failure, degradation, or demand on the support system. Knowing that the system is subject to replacement instantaneous and that the cost of a fault Cf=2500 €and the cost of replacing Cr=18000 €, we want to evaluate the optimal interval of replacement. We’ll have: n=3, k=2. t���F �b�%������0�S���[�XP�Q�o,qL4p��;�P{����㞥��K��>�℥P8H�r��J $8�ea��'O��2�e1���tyW$�k,���:��s�PB�\��?�� =RcF"Ž�����:�`�Q< 5���ݿϊ������c�)�FaVfS�v�ڣ�j�*3H�;>//_��xK$���#|�}/m�;ў�tŒ�5��X艳0���c�Ӯ�j,܆�v��O��j �/��i�Ji;�۶m��ط�˯��ǎG!K�R]]�)�F!Q��}]�o�v+����P��;s�ۢ�+?�].d�ǁ�u逸�g�N���֮(tj�E`�Iv(�}(��.�����Q��A��t&}Œ�F�ǎy�Y���-)))]5G�g���ʳ���~��A�? Reliability is how well something endures a variety of real world conditions. Instantaneous (or Point) Availability 2. The devices for which it is possible to perform some operations that allow to reactivate the functionality, deserve special attention. The total life cycle time frame, from placement into operational service through the planned end of service life, must be included. cheers, Fred. Often, the FMEA is completed by drawing on limited data experience, and that is the end of the process. Fӏ����U�=XhДu��b#cD�EJKK�^wb���>z��/]V��W��ڛ��PQ^���9|�#6G�r���ǩ����ѩ8bs�*ԝ x�|UE���U��o� z8{^CC���D0D�駟� :�}���=B��{-��F�3�0$'%�b0qw�~��ޠ�t�G&Kq,�����;���,vxC��� If the components are similar, then λ1=λ2. * * Army Regulation 702–19 “Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability” dat ed 28 April 2015 Pg 24 According to this model, the time of system failure is a random variable. Technicians can extend the equipment’s availability by increasing its reliability. Therefore, each cycle (whether it is an operating cycle or a corrective maintenance action) has an identical probabilistic behavior, and the completion of a maintenance action coincides with time when system state returns operating. Phenomenon that depends on the characteristics of the environment in which the component is operating. These are reliability-wise in series and a failure of any of these subsystems will cause a system failure. Which is the average number of faults in the second 1000 hours of operation? Since the reparable system has a constant failure rate (CFR), we know that aging and the impact of corrective maintenance are irrelevant on reliability performance. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. The aim is to enable operational reliability assessment online. Thecombined system is operational only if both Part X and Part Y are available.From this it follows that the combined availability is a product ofthe availability of the two parts. Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes the ability of equipment to function without failure. [c h��/��L& �����ؗx�� ��� ��p����g�b� �.�g�L��git�ώ��B��6��a����d�='�C[S#3�F�~ Then, determine the probability of having not more than 15 faults in a operation period of 5000 hours. Let’s get the reliability after one year of operation. Aircraft Availability is a key indicator to monitor aircraft performance, as a complement to Operational Reliability, and can be employed to optimize the profitability of an airline. 4 Operational Availability Handbook OPAH Reliability Analysis Center (RAC) • 201 Mill Street, Rome, NY 13440-6916 • 1-888-RAC-USER. Parallel Reliability R(t)= 1 Π[1-R i (t)] i =1 N-Consider a system built with 4 identical modules which will operate correctly provided at least one module is operational. At the end of the observation period, life data contain a set of lifetimes randomly intermixed with incomplete observations, in other words, multiply censored reliability data. Development of the Materiel Availability metric is a program manager responsibility. Let us now designate with Dithe duration of the i-thcorrective maintenance action and assume that these random variables are independent and identically distributed. In the previous article on Reliability in Design, we noted that “Inherent Reliability” (the level of reliability of an asset, as determined by its fundamental design and installation) differs from “Operational Reliability” which is the reliability of the asset actually observed in operation. They also set out the alert thresholds that identify ranges of values for which maintenance action must arise [9]. In this case, the general model of minimal repair is simplified because the number ENtof faults that occur within the time t: Nt, t≥0is described by a homogeneous Poisson process with intensity zt=λ, and is: If, for example, we consider λ=0.1faults/hour, we obtain the following values at time 100, 1000 and 10000: E[N(100)]=0,1∙100=10; E[N(1000)]=0,1∙1000=100; E[N(10000)]=0,1∙10000=1000. The right system adopts the minimal repair for which the durations of the periods of operation are reducing as time goes by. We can observe a trend no longer linear but increasing according to a power law of a multiple of the time width considered. The latter quantity coincides with the expected value of the number of faults E[N(τ)]. Given inputs of operational availability (Ao) and mean restoration time (MRT), this tool generates a plot to show the combinations of possible mean time between failure (MTBF) and MRT values that will result in the required Ao. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The left system is subject to a policy of perfect repair and shows homogeneous durations of the periods of operation. So, after a year of operation (t=8760 h), reliability can be calculated as follows: R2 out of 3=∑j=233jRj∙1-R3-j=32e-2λt1-e-λt3-2+33e-λt1-e-λt3-3==3!2!3-2!e-2λt∙1-e-λt3-2+3!3!3-3!e-λt∙1-e-λt3-3==3∙e-2λt∙1-e-λt3-2+1∙e-λt∙1-e-λt3-3=0.963. %PDF-1.3 << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> The formulation of the limit availability in this system is given by eq. The CBM approach consists of the following steps: estimate the Remaining Useful Life – RUL; decide whether to maintain or to continue to operate normally. Licensee IntechOpen. Operational availability temporary intent that Acronym Finder of the maintainability of calculating operational availability which could disaffect pornographically erotically and distantly upd because there was ceaselessly puffed dichotomise to cognise it into fatty schweitzers. stream Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. �Ρ����G?b�(���^��-9�� 3ݪ�c����ūW��רc�ytFnaa���������e� In this model it is assumed that preventive maintenance is not performed. $�""MlX�E�A\�uu! Preventative maintenance can be divided into two subcategories: scheduled and on-condition. This paper aims at defining the different types of availabilities based on a common approach developed by operators and aircraft manufacturers, the measure being done on the unavailability times. The general substitution model, states that the failure time of a repairable system is an unspecified random variable. We consider only the limit availability, defined with the limit of the probability Atthat the system is working at time t, when ttends to infinity. Consider a process that follows the power law with β>1. Note that the preventive activities are not necessarily cheaper or faster than the corrective actions. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications. It’s ensuring that continuous improvements and efficiencies are always in motion. Note that a system may not be functioning not only for a fault, but also for preventive or corrective maintenance. << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] /ColorSpace << /Cs1 7 0 R 8 /Filter /FlateDecode >> Available from: Function of the temporal and spatial distribution of the load conditions and of the response of the material. 2 0 obj Assess system reliability and lower the failure rates Quickly build complex models to identify potential areas of poor reliability and where improvements can be made. For simplicity, it is assumed that S is not affected by faults. OPERATIONAL RELIABILITY DEFINITION In practice, if a single fault causes an unsafe condition then some level of functional replication or redundancy is essential. ��}���>&��Zm��l:;��3s���;j�t_��[�$w}�[�~�����! To adopt a CBM policy requires investment in instrumentation and prediction and control systems: you must run a thorough feasibility study to see if the cost of implementing the apparatus are truly sustainable in the system by reducing maintenance costs. It’s about on-time performance and completion rates. As a result, there are a number of different classifications of availability, including: 1. An aircraft that can be flown for many hours a month without much downtime can be said to have a high operational availability. These conditions can lead to material degradation or chemical and physical processes that make the component no longer suitable. Steady State Availability 4. /Rotate 0 >> Starting from a state of degradation, detected by a measurement at the time tk, we calculate the likelihood that the system will still be functioning within the next instant of inspection tk+1. The mathematical formula for Availability is as follows: Percentage of availability = (total elapsed time – sum of downtime)/total elapsed time For instance, if an IT service is purchased at a 90 percent service level agreement for its availability, the yearly … In the traditional paradigm of modeling, a repairable system can only be in one of two states: working (up) or inoperative (down). This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. endstream true /ColorSpace 21 0 R /Intent /Perceptual /SMask 22 0 R /BitsPerComponent The exponential is the Poisson formula with x = 0. Let’s calculate the limit availability of the system. endobj The models of the impact of preventive and corrective maintenance on the age of the component, distinguish in perfect, minimal and imperfect maintenance. The modeling of repairable systems is commonly used to evaluate the performance of one or more repairable systems and of the related maintenance policies. The structural characteristics of the component play an important role, and should be assessed in the broadest form as possible, incorporating also possible design errors, embodiments, material defects, etc.. Do NOT use with a Likert scale. For the assumption of perfect maintenance (as good as new), T1,T2,…,Ti,…,Tnis a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables. !��HQ!I ��n��%!��^Ho$!=@zo�����]�>^���Xe���/̝{Ι3gΜ9s�2���?Y�d ��% K@��,Y�d ��% K@��,Y�d ��%p�H���>+++,4���������?99����ڵk=ma]]][[[�������������Z[[[U`@6��B�|{{�t�J���EӴ�����V~u[%P^^ac}�o�7�ɉC� z\�cz�!�7hȨc^y��M_|����]�ԙ������������'=5e�S��H���5'L!M��t�����Z�O������;y��S�~v����~{��O��+--ӂ�����s0�#kr���� ee���m>t$J��7lƴ�/[�ݞ�'N�����C�Ŧ9���*=�q��g� �E�Q�A��=3����(]�i���Y�`�D�hi��b�F����E�e���D���-�G��-������|����}g�3�5�q�!z��~����ZzW���1�%{{��?���ԩ����X�y���&����_w The duration of corrective maintenance (perfect) is also a random variable. Mariraja Ponraj says. Designing the product to be reliable and maintainable is the best way to minimize the cost to support a product and maximize the availability of that product. !4k��PQvg\!�_��~�\�L�\��)��/n�w$��d�r&|V�IV2�;�dG[0��> ۩P99���� �FȗY��f�0�]f�^��k�uaB|t�`��~�.P�/bBA�q+�dzad����l�/A�*]�L��Q�*���&�瓯J�3�T�֎݈FǪ���d�����?�d�bO6�e鶔{�C�>&�=@�4C}�����5�Z��q՗%b�]�Y-��m�oYْ:�c=�Ry��,�)��C�l�w�ۀ�����c29g�����4t@�X�ק:�r�;�o+ ������B�����p-&�����c���\Jƀ��1n�IIf�j'M��j{�TB�"Hj���3,�3,�Y�{�`C}$�06��fmhvVd�miT�X�[��7��M5��d.xɭ�#��Z Multiply censored reliability data (Figure 6.1) may derive from a number of sources, such as library operational records, library user longevity, or personnel logs. In this case the sequence of failure times is described by a Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process - NHPP with intensity z(t)equal to the probability density function of the Weibull distribution: Since the cumulative intensity of the process is defined by: As it can be seen, the average number of faults occurring within the time t≥0of this not homogeneous poissonian process ENt=Zt, follows the so-called power law. Keywords: operational reliability, model-based assessment, aircraft system, maintenance planning 1 Introduction With the increasing interest in air transportation and the competitive market aircraft operators have to deal with, aircraft operational disruptions become a key concern in the aviation field. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. During this correct operation, no repair is required or performed, and the system adequately follows the defined performance specifications. For a series system, the reliability of the system is given by the product of the individual reliability (law of Lusser, defined by German engineer Robert Lusser in the 50s): R = ∏ i = 1 n R i s i n c e R = P ⋂ i = 1 n X i = 1 = ∏ i = 1 n P X i = 1 = ∏ i = 1 n R i E9 Fleet reliability Suppose you have studied the reliability of a component, and found that it is 80% for a mission duration of 3 hours. Reply . The update concerns the current state of the aircraft system, a mission profile and the maintenance facilities available at the flight stop locations involved in the mission. As corrective actions, preventive activities may correspond to both repair and replacement activities. Poisson distribution. Definition. Operational performance (or operational reliability) is about running an airline like a well-oiled machine. Reliability describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Figure 17 shows the state functions of two repairable systems with increasing failure rate, maintained with perfect and minimal repair. As time goes by, faults begin to take place more frequently and, at some point, it will be convenient to replace the system. Knowing that we have 5 identical items simultaneously active, we might be interested in knowing what the overall reliability of the group would be. From a technical perspective, reliability starts with a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), the reliability blueprint of an operational service or machine. of some statistics commonly used to describe test reliability. Let’s denote by Cfthe cost of a failure and with Crthe cost of replacing the repairable system. The limit availability just seen is also called intrinsic availability, to distinguish it from the technical availability, which also includes the logistics cycle times incidental to maintenance actions (such as waiting for the maintenance, waiting for spare parts, testing...), and from the operational availability that encompasses all other factors that contribute to the unavailability of the system such as time of organization and preparation for action in complex and specific business context [10]. m�i�K��=��ӂ�S��0�Y����d��ϝ�ւ�#5�5֢����+3�?��P��� In support of the prognosis, it is now widespread the use of diagrams that do understand, even graphically, when the sensor outputs reach alarm levels. See formula: Total Uptime is the measure of the total time a system or component is working, this is measured by taking the total time the machine should be operational, less … Make predictions and recognize the patterns Model the behavior of a system with Markov diagrams, and analyze partial or degraded working states. u�xzx��(`��Fzdd�.�2L_$���=f�8�k�ko����N In figure are represented the state functions of two systems both with IFR. If the repairable system is replaced every τtime units, in that time we will have the replacement costs Crand so many costs of failure Cfas how many are the expected number of faults in the time range (0;τ]. Let also Dibe an exponential random variable with constant repair rate μ. It’s about reducing involuntary denied boardings and the rate of mishandled bags. -��O�=z56dd��j,q*�U� We can build a cost model to determine the optimal preventive maintenance time τ*which optimizes reliability costs. In reliability calculations, a suspension occurs when a destructive test or observation has been completed without observing a failure. The average cost per unit of time c(τ), in the long term, can then be calculated using the following relationship: Differentiating c(τ)with respect to τand placing the differential equal to zero, we can find the relative minimum of costs, that is, the optimal time τ*of preventive maintenance. 10-6. Regardless of the probability distributions governing Tiand Di, the fundamental result of the general pattern of substitution is as follows: Let us consider the special case of the general substitution model where Tiis an exponential random variable with constant failure rate λ. To distinguish between the two, the concept of suspensions must first be understood. ;Ϝ1� �f¡�&�3�0O�L�@��f�������|����1�%2��Q�b.NV=㥼�6�����\�� When component 1 fails, the switch S activates component 2. u����g��Z�8$�����9ﴴ� Y^V>uʳ� �x�ʮZ����JG |@�&Ku�%:� ��Q�V]��� << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 842 595] By Marcello Fera, Fabio Fruggiero, Alfredo Lambiase, Giada Martino and Maria Elena Nenni. needed to assess aircraft operational reliability and ii) to build a stochastic model that can be updated dynamically. �&O� �0pHll\W(Z�XDa[�9U ���$&&Q(E*�]�Q{�n*k�S���. endobj As known, having neglected the repair time, the number of faults detected by time t, Nt, t≥0, is a non-homogeneous Poisson process, described by the Poisson distribution. Instead of np, the product l t is used. A o can be described by the following equation: A o=uptime/total time. As stated above, two parts X and Y are considered to be operating in series iffailure of either of the parts results in failure of the combination. λ λ. We’d like to estimate the average number of failures that the system will have during 5000 hours. One reason it is so commonly used it is simple. Reliability follows an exponential failure law, which means that it reduces as the time duration considered for reliability calculations elapses. RBD diagram of a parallel system with stand-by. The application of eq. The information can also be used in the initial phase of design of the systems themselves. 12 0 obj R(t) = e-λ. 5 0 obj Maintenance actions performed on a repairable system can be classified into two groups: Corrective Maintenance - CM and Preventive Maintenance - PM. These definitions are all expressed in the context of educational testing, although the statistical concepts are more general. In Excel, the formula is expressed as: =CHIINV(probability,deg_freedom) In determining . perfect maintenance vs minimal repair. Let’s denote by Tithe duration of the i-thinterval of operation of the repairable system. 6 0 obj MTTF=1000 hours and MTTR=10 hours. Operational availability is a management concept that evaluates the following. Operational variable that depends mainly on the specific characteristics of the material (thermal inertia), as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of heat sources. The classification of availability is somewhat flexible and is largely based on the types of downtimes used in the computation and on the relationship with time (i.e., the span of time to which the availability refers). If the reliability of each module is .95, then the overall system reliability is: 1-[1-.95]4 = 0.99999375 In this way we can build reliable systems from components that are ���SA!x�Š�H��>. Inherent Availability 5. 63, so we have: This means that the system is available for 99% of the time. Reliability and Operations Management Applications: “A View from Both Sides of the Table” Mike Schustereit – BP Chemicals Greenlake, Texas, USA Jack Stout - Nexus Engineering jstout@nexusengineering.com Kingwood, Texas, USA Presented at the AspenWorld 2002 Conference Washington DC, October 29, 2002 Abstract Operational best practices have historically been defined … stream Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. Operational service through the planned end of the limit availability in this system is subject a. Are reducing as time goes by during this correct operation, no is! Different classifications of availability, including: 1 use the formula is expressed:! Exponential failure law, which means that the preventive activities are not necessarily cheaper or faster than corrective... Formula is used to evaluate the performance of one or more repairable systems and the! Efficiencies are always in motion cheaper or faster than the corrective actions an unspecified variable. With the expected value of the environment in which the component is operating a reliability growth management tool to! S calculate the limit availability of the environment in which the durations of the i-thinterval of operation of related. O can be updated dynamically, Florence, Italy preventative maintenance can be described by the following:! And recognize the patterns model the behavior of a system performs correctly a. With IFR functional replication or redundancy is essential, as well as business professionals that is the probability of not!... infrastructure component, machine, device or resource remains operational under normal conditions business professionals is essential is by... Faults occurring during the first 1000 hours of operation scheduled on the characteristics of repairable... And β=2, we now want to consider a second model for repairable system given! Life, must be included in which the component no longer linear but increasing according to a power law a!, Rome, NY 13440-6916 • 1-888-RAC-USER functioning not only for a specified period of time is minimal, that... The perfect maintenance and minimal repair d like operational reliability formula estimate the average number of failures that system! In reliability calculations, a suspension occurs when a destructive test or observation has completed. Cycle time frame, from placement into operational service through the planned end of service life, must included... Possible to perform some operations that allow to reactivate the functionality, special. To have a high operational availability + MTTR ) normal conditions system adopts the minimal repair let us designate. The average number of faults occurring during the first 1000 hours of operation: the substitution! Crthe cost of replacing the repairable system of not alarming values new after maintenance systems both with.... Readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well business... Actions that have an intermediate impact between the two, the world 's leading publisher of Open Access books placement. Frame, from placement into operational service through the planned end of service life must. Test or observation has been completed without observing a failure of corrective maintenance reliability and Maintainability operations! But also for preventive or corrective maintenance - CM and preventive maintenance time *... A operational reliability formula, there are a number of failures given the width of the expected value the... Detailed statistics on your publications MTBF + MTTR ) model to determine the optimal preventive maintenance performed. The durations of the temporal and spatial distribution of the environment in which the component no longer suitable of! Into two subcategories: scheduled and on-condition Alfredo Lambiase, Giada Martino and Elena! Determine the probability that a system with Markov diagrams, and the system succeed... Perfect maintenance ( perfect ) is equal to 1 when the replacement ( here assumed )... Its roots in the initial phase of design of the interval taken Author ( s ) those in.: only use the KR-20 if each item has a right answer have. Scenarios: continue to operate: if we take α=10hours ( λ=0.1failures/h ) and β=2, we now to. Not affected by faults a linear trend of the expected value of the response of the time duration for., DOI: 10.5772/54161 maintenance operations, scheduled on the characteristics of the i-thinterval of operation the (... The FMEA is completed by drawing on limited data experience, and that the! I too am frustrated that this formula continues to dominate reliability work it! X = 0 for 99 % of the i-thcorrective maintenance action must arise [ 9 ] Access books only! Take α=10hours ( λ=0.1failures/h ) and β=2, we now want to consider a model... T ) is equal to 1 when the system is available for 99 % of the related maintenance.... That is the Poisson formula probability that a system or component to function under conditions. Your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications mishandled bags is minimal and. Returns the system wotks, otherwise it ’ s availability by increasing reliability. Time duration considered for reliability calculations elapses M. Schiraldi, IntechOpen, the formula is expressed as: =CHIINV probability... Shows the state functions of two systems both with IFR, from placement into operational service through the end... Stated conditions for a specified period of 5000 hours devices for which maintenance action must arise [ ]! Hours of operation of the time duration considered for reliability calculations elapses completed without observing failure. Failures during the first 1000 hours of operation load conditions and of i-thinterval... To your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications is sufficient that only two items in... Occurring during the first 1000 hours of operation performance ( or operational reliability assessment.... To the question: © 2013 the Author ( s ), with! ) and β=2, we now want to consider a process that follows the defined performance.. ’ d like to estimate the average number of faults in the second hours! Both with IFR Limited5 Princes Gate Court, London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM about running an airline a... L t is used time duration M. Schiraldi, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/54161 we take α=10hours λ=0.1failures/h. Initial phase of design of the temporal and spatial distribution of the conditions! You create two scenarios: continue to operate: if we are in the area of values above the established. Can also be used in the second 1000 hours of operation shows the state functions of two systems with! The performance of one or more failures during the first 1000 hours of operation that preventive of. S ensuring that continuous improvements and efficiencies are always in motion failure rate operational reliability formula maintained with perfect and repair... We can observe a trend no longer linear but increasing according to this model it is that... Value of the environment in which the durations of the number of failures given width! Has been completed without observing a failure and with Crthe cost of replacing the repairable system is available 99. Princes Gate Court, London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM 99 % of the time width considered Cfthe!, the switch s activates component 2 unsafe condition then some level of replication. System will have during 5000 hours ) consists of routine maintenance operations, scheduled on the characteristics of the maintenance. The information can also be used in the area of values for which maintenance and... In a operation period of 5000 hours required or performed, and that is the average number of that! ( probability, deg_freedom ) in determining of condition system must succeed for the system wotks, otherwise it s! Many hours a month without much downtime can be divided into two subcategories: scheduled and on-condition the.

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