Blog. The imperial government’s conscript levies were hard-pressed to defeat Saigō, but in the end superior transport, modern communications, and better weapons assured victory for the government. 4, Sophia University, JSTOR, 1973. The game has only 48 counters. By landing troops at Oita and Saiki to the north of Saigo’s position and making rapid forced marches up from the south, Yamagata was able to surround Saigo again, but the rebels proved too strong to hold. He decided to break the ring of steel one more time, determined to fall back on Kagoshima or die trying. By the time fighting resumed on March 3, both sides had been reinforced and numbered about 10,000 each. It signaled the beginning of the Japanese Imperial Army's rise to domination in eastern Asia, which would end only with Japan's eventual defeat in World War II almost seven decades later. Emphasis was placed on the historical prowess of the Satsuma warrior, and students were indoctrinated in Bushido, the samurai’s ancient chivalric code. Unlike the minor insurrections that preceded it, the Satsuma Rebellion is rightly considered a civil war. After eight days of tramping through rugged, rain-swept mountains and misty forests, Saigo’s men found their path blocked by a large patrol. During the 1860s, Japan underwent a period of turmoil as conservative-minded daimyo and samurai attacked both the government and foreigners in an attempt to restore the country’s isolation. That system began to come apart in 1854, when U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry sailed into Kagoshima Harbor and invited Japan to join the modern world — at gunpoint. Modern Asian Studies, Volume 28, Issue 3, Cambridge University Press, July 1994. It was Yamagata who ordered a frontal assault on the Satsuma positions on March 4, which developed into the eight-day Battle of Tabaruzuka. Written only a year or so after the event it does allow for contemporary opinion. The police contingent was no mean addition to the garrison, for Japanese policemen were a paramilitary force recruited from the samurai class, comparable to the French gendarmerie or Italian carabinieri. The shortage of ammunition was so severe that rationing was necessary and the artillerists were reduced to firing unexploded Satsuma shells back at the besiegers. Paranoia caused him to park the Lexus in the back, a tarp covering a pallet of supplies also being placed over it. In brusque terms, the letter informed him that Saigo would soon be passing by his command, and requested that the garrison be turned out to meet Saigo and receive his orders. If a unit retreated with enemy troops in pursuit, the neighboring units were to fire into the area indiscriminately, killing their own men if necessary. Its armament factories were producing 500,000 rounds of small-arms ammunition a day. The students then seized the arms factories, hired more workers and went into full production. Outraged by these high-handed tactics, 50 students attacked the Somuta arsenal and tried to carry off arms. The Satsuma Rebellion was a rebellion by Samurai who served the Satsuma clan. They faced each other along a 61¼2-mile front from Tabaruzuka southwest to Ariake Bay. Satsuma Rebellion of 1877 - Aftermath The suppression of the rebels involved much time and a great array of forces. They were rebelling against the controversial new emperor of Japan, Emperor Meiji. As the two sides were well dug in, a fierce war of position developed in which neither side could gain an advantage. Though bloodily repulsed by concentrated fire, the samurai continued to hurl themselves at the walls with suicidal ferocity. A final attack was planned for April 14, but before it could be carried out, Saigo disengaged and his men took up new positions on high ground east of Kumamoto. The game uses two custom decks of cards, the Samurai Deck and the Imperial Deck. In order to cut Saigo off from his base, an imperial force made up of three warships, bearing 500 policemen and several companies of infantry, arrived in Kagoshima on March 8. Moreover, the letter was not in Saigo’s handwriting. The garrison, however, no longer had to contend with the wild frontal assaults that had characterized the early stage of the siege. Chasing the ghost of Musashi in Kyushu. Theme: The Satsuma Rebellion in Japan in 1877. Buck, James H. "The Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Military History magazine today! One of the important Bakumatsu people, Takamori Saigoh decided to make a revolt in his home area, Satsuma (Kagoshima) in 1877 against his old friends and partners inside Meiji government. Prominent among them was Field Marshal Takamori Saigo. I feel confident in removing the romantic image of protecting the samurai and fighting corruption, as he was instrumental in modernizing Japan's military. The only heavy ordnance the rebels still possessed were some homemade wooden cannons wrapped with bamboo strips. In this episode of Military History, we cover the rise of the Satsuma Rebellion. To their disgust, the officers were treated as if they were deserters. A local dissident leader, Kichijuro Ikebe, gathering a force of 2,000 samurai from students of the private schools that he had founded in imitation of the Great Saigo, joined the rebellion. This rebellion was led by the restoration hero Saigō Takamori and lasted six months. Satsuma Rebellion of 1877 - Combat. A servant hid the head to keep it from falling into enemy hands. There was little shooting, either due to lack of ammunition or from inclination. Having been outfought and outmaneuvered so often in the past, however, he was determined to leave nothing to chance. The last, and by far the greatest, revolt came in Satsuma in 1877. However, a government garrison at Kumamoto Castle stood in the Satsuma rebels' path, manned by about 3,800 soldiers and 600 police under Major General Tani Tateki. With a smaller force, and unsure about the loyalty of his Kyushu-native troops, Tani decided to stay inside the castle rather than venture out to face Saigo's army. Early on February 22, the Satsuma attack began. Small clashes and skirmishes took place on February 21, forcing the imperial advance guards to withdraw inside Kumamoto. The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, 'Southwestern War') was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army. Deprived of supplies from home, rebel forces lived on food purchased from the local peasants with paper promissory notes, bearing the stamp of the Satsuma commander. The government had already dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts, and the prospect of Satsuma samurai, which were widely regarded as the best in Japan, being led in rebellion by the Great Saigo was too terrible to contemplate. After several sharp clashes, both sides disengaged on the 26th. Although Prince Taruhito Arisugawa was the official commander of the imperial forces assigned to put down the Satsuma rebels, real command was in the hands of General Aritomo Yamagata. The samurai of Satsuma had grown dissatisfied with the direction the government was taking. "The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori." Commanded by Saigō Takamori, the Satsuma army fought unrelentingly for seven months. Born in Satsuma, the westernmost province on the island of Kyushu, in 1827, ‘Great Saigo,’ as his supporters called him, had backed the Meiji emperor in 1867. To aid in the air of legality that he was trying to project, Saigo wore his army uniform. In the same year, the wearing of swords in public became optional, and in 1876 it became illegal. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. By 7 a.m., the Satsuma Rebellion was over. Among the rebel weapons captured by the imperials at Nobeoka were numerous matchlock muskets of ancient vintage. The glue that held that structure together was the military caste that served the daimyo: the samurai. During the days of the han, Satsuma had taken a lead in arms manufacture and importation. Although Satsuma Domain had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, and although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking. The modern Japanese army had passed its first test and would soon develop into a force that would terrorize Asia and briefly humble the Western forces of Russia, Germany, Britain, the Netherlands and the United States. With 30,000 troops at his disposal, Yamagata outnumbered Saigo’s forces 60-to-1. Instruction at the schools centered on the Chinese classics, although French and English were also taught. Retreating before the government troops, the samurai next tried to make a stand at Nobeoka, a coastal city north of Miyakonojo. The government, however, refused to negotiate. Rather than risk desertions or defections, Tani decided to stand on the defensive. The Siege of Kumamoto Castle lasted until April 12, 1877. Many former samurai from the area joined Saigo's army, increasing his force to 20,000. The Satsuma samurai fought on with fierce determination; meanwhile, the defenders ran out of artillery shells. Calling his closest friends to his dugout, Saigo spent his last night in a sake party. The Satsuma Rebellion proved that a conscript army of commoners could out-fight even a very determined band of samurai — provided they had overwhelming numbers, at any rate. It signaled the beginning of the Japanese Imperial Army's rise to domination in eastern Asia, which would end only with Japan's eventual defeat in World War II almost seven decades later. The Meiji Era controlled most of Japan, except for a small area in the southwestern part of Japan, which was the Satsuma. Suddenly, 2 million samurai found themselves ineligible for careers that had once been theirs alone. Rebellions broke out in Satsuma, Hizen, and Tosa. At that time, the relief force was then only a few miles away. Both armies had suffered heavy casualties, but the conscription system allowed the imperial army to replace its losses. Lacking any definite strategy, the rebels dug in to await the next government offensive. Saigo was still trying to avoid war. On the evening of August 19, Saigo burned his private papers and his imperial army uniform. Officials intended to transport them to Osaka. During the next three days, more than 1,000 students raided the naval yards and the Iso arsenal, stealing 84,000 rounds of ammunition. The war had cost the imperial forces more than 6,000 troops killed and 10,000 wounded, while the much smaller samurai army had lost 7,000 dead and 11,000 wounded. Determined not to let the rebels escape again, Yamagata issued orders for extra security precautions and then set about tightening the ring. After the troops landed, they seized the arsenals and took the provincial governor into custody. The first test of the young Meiji government came with the revolt of the powerful Satsuma clan based in the southern region of the island of Kyushu. Marching north, the army was hampered by the deepest snowfall Satsuma had seen in more than 50 years. Two of Saigo’s officers approached the imperial positions under a white flag in the hope of finding a way to save him. The flashpoint for what became known as the Satsuma Rebellion came when imperial troops seized the military supplies from the arsenal at Kagoshima, to prevent them falling into the hands of any rebels. The Fiscal Reform The Satsuma Rebellion ultimately did not cause a financial collapse. 28, No. As a result, there was considerable weaponry stockpiled at several armories scattered throughout the province. -The rebellion lasted from January of 1877 to September of that same year. A samurai from Chosu who had studied military science in Europe and headed the War Ministry in 1870, Yamagata was an old friend of Saigo’s. Ravina, Mark. The Satsuma rebellion was a resist from the Meiji government and modern changes that took place in 1877. E.M. [Edward Morgan] Forster, English novelist (A Passage to India, A Room With a View). During that period, one of Saigo’s subordinates slipped into Kagoshima, despite the presence of the imperial garrison, and raised a force of 1,500 samurai. Japan’s future was ultimately resolved in 1868, however, when Emperor Mutsuhito stepped into power under the title of Meiji (‘enlightened peace’), abolished the shogunate, ratified a constitution and moved the imperial capital to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo. At that point, Beppu and the last of the samurai drew their swords and plunged downhill toward the enemy positions until the last of them was mowed down. Yamagata’s battle plan was to assault the samurai position from all sides at once. Forced to carry Saigo on a special litter, since he was suffering from a hydrocele, the little army managed to slip through the fog undetected, quietly dispatching the few guards who barred its path. The government had already dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts, and the prospect of Satsuma samurai, which were widely regarded as the best in Japan, being led in rebellion by the Great Saigo was too terrible to contemplate. During the days of the han, Satsuma had taken a lead in arms manufacture and importation. By February 21, he had 3,800 soldiers and 600 policemen at his disposal. Many of the Satsuma commanders advocated a fight to the death where they stood, but Saigo vetoed the plan. Fighting to preserve the old order, the samurai had gone down in bloody defeat to modern weapons wielded by the lower-class soldiers they despised. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. The Modern Imperial Army destroyed the last of the Samurai. Saigo also started an artillery school. The rebellion lasted almost the whole year of 1877, and commanded an army of around 20 thousand. How to engage your audience in any online presentation; Sept. 2, 2020. While being carried toward Iwasakiguchi, Saigo was wounded in the thigh and stomach. Whether intentionally or not, Saigo was forging the nucleus for a rebellion. Cause of the Satsuma Rebellion Saigo Takamori's decision to lead a rebellion against the government he was instrumental in creating is rather bewildering. One player is the Samurai. The other player is the Imperial Army." Over his subordinates’ objections, Saigo decided to go to Tokyo and try to negotiate with the government. In comparison, Saigo’s force was reduced to melting down metal statuettes that local civilians smuggled in, and casting the metal into bullets. As a result, there was considerable weaponry stockpiled at … The imperial government’s conscript levies were hard-pressed to defeat Saigō, but in the end superior transport, modern communications, … Assessment - What caused the death of Saigō Takamori? He believed in authoritarian government and shared Saigo’s desire for military expansion into Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria, but he also favored modernizing the Japanese army along Prussian lines. What happened at the Battle of Shiroyama? Medical supplies consisted of one carpenter’s saw for amputations and a few rags for bandages. Paperback, 1 edition, Wiley, February 7, 2005. Soon after word of the arrests got out, a rumor circulated that several of the suspected spies had confessed under torture to having been sent by the government to kill Saigo and stir up insurrection as an excuse for the government to invade. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. The first letter may have been sent by shigakko extremists hoping to provoke a confrontation. Oku’s small force, though discovered and attacked the next morning, was able to keep a hole open in the rebel lines long enough to revictual the garrison before passing through and linking up with the imperial army. This rebellion was led by the restoration hero Saigō Takamori and lasted six months. Ironically, this provoked open conflict, although with the elimination of samurai rice stipends in 1877, tensions were already extremely high." Master these negotiation skills to succeed at work (and beyond) In late August, Imperial forces led by General Yamagata Aritomo surrounded the rebels on Mount Enodake. The imperial forces linked up with the castle garrison the next day, ending 54 days of siege. One of his most loyal followers, Shinsuke Beppu, carried him farther down the hill on his shoulders. Saigō Takamori was labeled as a tragic hero by the people and on February 22, 1889, Emperor Meijipardoned Saigō posthumously. The result transformed the government’s concerns about rebellion into a self-fulfilling prophesy. Almost all of their modern firearms had been lost. . After seven days and a march of 100 miles through rugged wastes, the samurai limped into Hitoyoshi. Meanwhile, at Kumamoto Castle stocks of food were running dangerously low. "Fearing a rebellion, the Meiji government sent a warship to Kagoshima to remove the weapons stockpiled at the Kagoshima arsenal on January 30, 1877. What caused the Satsuma Rebellion? Determined to prevent future humiliations, Japanese leaders decided that they needed a modern army equipped with the most up-to-date weapons, trained by the best officers of the day: the French and Germans. In the final battle, the Battle of Shiroyama, 30,000 imperial troops bore down upon Saigo and his few hundreds of surviving rebel samurai. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Imperial Army did not attack immediately upon arrival on September 8 but instead spent more than two weeks carefully preparing for its final assault. In the wee hours of the morning on September 24, the emperor's troops launched a three-hour-long artillery barrage, followed by a massed infantry assault that began at 6 am.Â. Several weeks of guerrilla fighting followed as the government forces mopped up small pockets of samurai scattered throughout the Kyushu hills. The Meiji Restoration of 1868 signaled the beginning of the end for Japan's samurai warriors. After centuries of samurai rule, however, many members of the warrior class were understandably reluctant to give up their status and power. They also believed that only the samurai had the courage and training to defend Japan from its enemies, internal and external. Surely no conscript army of peasants could fight like the samurai! In 1877, the samurai of the Satsuma Province rose up in the Satsuma Rebellion or Seinan Senso (Southwestern War), challenging the authority of the Restoration Government in Tokyo and testing the new imperial army. -The Satsuma rebellion was a rebellion of samurai against the new imperial government. Unlike previous shizoku uprisings, which were small and poorly organized, the Satsuma Rebellion severely tested the government’s capacity to wage war. Morale was so low that Saigo ordered that any samurai who deserted, failed to obey orders or abandoned his weapons would be compelled to commit suicide. While many of Saigo's men desired to make a final stand on the mountain's slopes, their commander wished to continue their retreat back towards their base at Kagoshima. The Satsuma Rebellion proved that a conscript army of commoners could out-fight even a very determined band of samurai — provided they had overwhelming numbers, at any rate. As victory and surrender were ruled out, there remained only the hope for a glorious death. Most of the fighting was now confined to sniping and isolated clashes between rival swordsmen. Although deprived of his grand gesture, Saigo and fellow conservatives continued to agitate for war and a samurai-based army, but the peace party got the upper hand in the imperial councils. 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