He sent out overly powerful Navies to defeat them, 90,000 Janissaries vs. 7000 shi'ites (Faithweb.com). Persia aligns with Charles V to fight the Ottomans breaking the peace. Alternative Title: ʿAbbās the Great ʿAbbās I, byname ʿAbbās the Great, (born Jan. 27, 1571—died Jan. 19, 1629), shah of Persia from 1588 to 1629, who strengthened the Safavid dynasty by expelling Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persian soil and by creating a standing army. Reader in the History of the Near and Middle East, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. The greatest of the Ottoman Sultan, a titan of law, culture, and war, Suleiman's reign saw the conquest of Persia and European territory, while at the same time laws were reformed and culture went through a period of exceptional flourishing and monumental building. Judea was to enjoy significant judicial and civil autonomy under the larger overlordship of Persia. On 28 May, William Knox D’Arcy is granted a 60-year concession to search for oil and gas across most of Persia. Selim I had tried and failed to dislodge the Knights in 1480. Suleiman's army of perhaps 120,000 reached Vienna in late September, without most of their heavy artillery and siege machines. Europe, and North Africa. The sultan's Mediterranean fleet patrolled the sea under the command of the famous Admiral Heyreddin Pasha, known in the west as Barbarossa. Perhaps best known for his overhaul of the Ottoman government during his reign, Suleiman was known by many names, including "The LawGiver." Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. He became sancak beyi (governor) of Kaffa in Crimea during the reign of his grandfather Bayezid II and of Manisa in western Asia Minor in the reign of Selim I. Süleyman succeeded his father, Selim I, as sultan of the Ottoman Empire in September 1520. From 1548 to 1549, Suleiman decided to overthrow his Persian gadfly for good and launched a second invasion of the Safavid Empire. However, the Turks were unable to dislodge the Portuguese from their toeholds along the west coasts of India and Pakistan. Difficulties of time and distance and of bad weather and lack of supplies, no less than the resistance of the Christians, forced the sultan to raise the siege. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Some of the buildings constructed during his empire still stand today, including edifices designed by Mimar Sinan. The Hapsburgs marched into Hungary and took Buda, placing Ferdinand on the throne and sparking a decades-long feud with Suleiman and the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman became the Sultan at the age of 25, upon succeeding his father Selim I in 1520, and began a series of military conquests. He was the only son of his father, Selim I (himself an exceptionally energetic, conquer… Suleiman suceeded to the throne in September 1520. The first (1534–35) gave the Ottomans control over the region of Erzurum in eastern Asia Minor and also witnessed the Ottoman conquest of Iraq, a success that rounded off the achievements of Selim I. Achievements in the areas of literature, philosophy, art, and architecture had a major impact on both Eastern and Western styles. His rich character and even richer contribution to the region and the Empire helped make it a source of great wealth in prosperity for years to come, ultimately leading to the foundation of several nations in Europe and the Middle East we know today. Suleiman's body was prepared for transport back to Constantinople. Suleiman waged three major campaigns in Persia during his reign. new weapons (gunpowder) which led to stronger central governments What technology and techniques enabled Suleiman to extend Ottoman rule? She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. This is the story of the men whose vision, interests and perseverance made it happen. Miniature depicting Suleiman marching with an army in Nakhchivan, summer 1554. ... Suleiman met a woman from Rohatyn, Ruthenia (modern day Ukraine) whose … He was the elder son of the previous shah Abbas II and a Circassian slave, Nakihat Khanum. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In Syria, he immediately suppressed the revolt of a former Mamluk governor, Janberdi Ghazali, and then, using as a pretext the Hungarian maltreatment of his ambassador, he attacked Hungary in 1521, capturing Belgrade. He used both a land-based army and a flotilla of ships to blockade the city and prevent reinforcement. Süleyman succeeded his father as sultan in September 1520 and began his reign with campaigns against the Christian powers in central Europe and the Mediterranean. A competent ruler who surrounded himself with advisors and counsellors of superior skill, his reign was widely praised as the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire. His father died in 1520 when Sul… Hiring and firing within the bureaucracy would be based on merit, rather than on the whims of higher officials or family connections. Conquest, like every other aspect of the Ottoman state and culture, was a multicultural heritage, with origins as far back as Mesopotamia and Persia, and as far afield as the original Mongol and Turkish peoples in eastern and central Asia. Suleiman the Magnificent vastly expanded the size and significance of the Ottoman Empire and launched a Golden Age in Ottoman arts. The second campaign (1548–49) brought much of the area around Lake Van under Ottoman rule, but the third (1554–55) served rather as a warning to the Ottomans of the difficulty of subduing the á¹¢afavid state in Persia. Mecca and medina. The death of John in 1540 and the prompt advance of Austrian forces once more into central Hungary drove Süleyman to modify profoundly the solution that he had imposed in the time of John. In 1541, the two empires went to war again when the Hapsburgs laid siege to Buda, trying to remove Suleiman's ally from the Hungarian throne. Mosque of Süleyman I the Magnificent, Istanbul, by Sinan, 1550–57, The classical Ottoman system crystallized during the reign of Süleyman I (the Lawgiver; ruled 1520–66)....…, Selim’s last years were spent in Istanbul solidifying the supremacy of the sultanate, exploiting the...…, …the Ottoman Empire, the sultan Süleyman I the Magnificent (1520–66). Süleyman agreed to recognize John as a vassal king of Hungary, and in 1529, hoping to remove at one blow all further intervention by the Habsburgs, he laid siege to Vienna. After long negotiations a peace recognizing the status quo in Hungary was signed in 1562. The third and final confrontation between Suleiman and Tahmasp took place from 1553 to 1554. Ottomans occupy Baghdad. Suleiman the Magnificent (November 6, 1494–September 6, 1566) became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1520, heralding the "Golden Age" of the Empire's long history before his death. Tripoli in North Africa fell to the Ottomans in 1551. Mir Sayyed Muhammad Marashi (June 1714 – May 1763), better known by his dynastic name of Suleiman II (Persian: شاه سلیمان‎), was a Safavid pretender who managed to briefly become ruler of some parts of Iran from 1749 to 1750. Of particular importance is vs. 26: “ Whoever does not obey the law of your God and the law of the king must surely be punished by death, banishment, confiscation of property, or imprisonment. Meanwhile, Suleiman himself led an army of reinforcements on a march to the coast, reaching Rhodes in late July. His first wife, Mahidevran Sultan, bore him his eldest son, an intelligent and talented boy named Mustafa. At first, Suleiman despatched his Grand Vizier Pargali Ibrahim Pasha to take back Bitis and occupy Tabriz, and then, in 1534, joined him to lead the armies into Persia. He also became fluent in six languages there: Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, Serbian, Chagatai Turkish (similar to Uighur), Farsi, and Urdu. Battling Oppressive Christian Regimes in Rhodes, The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: 1300 to 1924, Family Background and History of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, The Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal, Biography of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Founder of the Republic of Turkey, Biography of Vlad the Impaler, Inspiration for Dracula, Islamic Civilization: Timeline and Definition, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. The campaign was successful, however, in a more immediate sense, for John was to rule thereafter over most of Hungary until his death, in 1540. Shah Tahmasp finally agreed to sign a treaty with the Ottoman sultan, in which he got control of Tabriz in exchange for promising to cease border raids on Turkey and to permanently relinquish his claims to Baghdad and the rest of Mesopotamia. Suleiman himself returned from his second invasion of Austria and marched into Persia in 1534, but the Shah refused to meet the Ottomans in open battle, withdrawing into the Persian desert and using guerrilla hits against the Turks instead. the title of Sultan; viewed by many as an insult to Suleiman. This year marks the 110th anniversary of the discovery of the Masjid Suleiman oil field in southwest Persia (Iran), which ushered in a new era in the history of the Middle East. The first formal peace between the Ottomans and the á¹¢afavids was signed in 1555, but it offered no clear solution to the problems confronting the Ottoman sultan on his eastern frontier. Suleiman was the son and grandson of sultans. Contributor to. In July of the same year, the Sultan laid siege to Belgrade, a fortified city on the Danube River. They would pay no taxes for the first five years, and Suleiman promised that none of their churches would be converted into mosques. A second great campaign in 1532, notable for the brilliant Christian defense of Güns, ended as a mere foray into Austrian border territories. Ottoman naval power was felt at this time even as far afield as India, where a fleet sent out from Egypt made an unsuccessful attempt in 1538 to take the town of Diu from the Portuguese. Corrections? https://www.britannica.com/biography/Suleyman-the-Magnificent, The Ottomans.Org - Biography of Suleyman I, Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of Suleiman I, Süleyman the Magnificent - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Süleyman I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It took nearly half a year of artillery bombardment and detonating mines under the triple-layer stone walls, but on December 22, 1522, the Turks finally forced all of the Christian knights and the civilian inhabitants of Rhodes to surrender. Corn. The shah under which the Safavid empire reached its peak. Süleyman was the only son of Sultan Selim I. Suleiman the Magnificent had two official wives and an unknown number of additional concubines, so he bore many offspring. His officials did not want word of his death to distract and discomfit his troops, so they kept it a secret for a month and a half while the Turkish troops finalized their control of the area. The Hungarians and Ottomans defeated the Austrians, and captured additional Hapsburg holdings in 1541 and again in 1544. Jan 1, 1537 Belgrade fell to him in 1521 and Rhodes, long under the rule of the Knights of St. John, in 1522–23. (de); Suleiman I of Persia (sq); شاه سلیمان (fa); 蘇萊曼一世 (zh); სულეიმან I (ირანი) (ka); 蘇萊曼一世 (zh-hk); سليمان الاول الصفوى (arz); שאה סולימאן (he); 蘇萊曼一世 (zh-hant); 苏莱曼一世 (zh-cn); Sulaiman I (fi); Safí II. A strong Spanish expedition against Tripoli was crushed at Jarbah (Djerba) in 1560, but the Ottomans failed to capture Malta from the Knights of St. John in 1565. Suleiman's father entrusted his son with the governorships of different regions within the Ottoman Empire from the age of 17. In 1554, a truce was signed that ended the war. The Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, strengthened the government and improved the justice system. Before he launched his major assault on Europe, Suleiman wanted to take care of an annoying gadfly in the Mediterranean—Christian holdovers from the Crusades, the Knights Hospitallers. Media in category "Suleiman II of Persia" This category contains only the following file. Suleiman the lawgiver. King signs an alliance with the Jews of Persia due to Esther’s intervention. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with a… Download and buy this stock image: Suleiman of Persia, Shah of Persia, crowning, 25th of september 1666 or 1667 - B21-3077139 from agefotostock's photo library of over 110+ million high resolution stock photos, stock pictures, videos and stock vectors Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. Suleiman faced several additional crises before he was able to launch his attack into Hungary, but unrest among the Janissaries and a 1523 revolt by the Mamluks in Egypt proved to be only temporary distractions. He instituted protections for Christian and Jewish citizens of the Ottoman Empire, denouncing blood libels against the Jews in 1553 and freeing Christian farm laborers from serfdom. Muslim holy cities. Today, a Christian church and a fruit orchard stand in the area where Suleiman the Magnificent, greatest of the Ottoman sultans, left his heart on the battlefield. His father ruled quite successfully and left his son in a remarkably secure position with the Janissaries (members of the Sultan's household troops) at the height of their usefulness; the Mamluks defeated; and the great maritime power of Venice, as well as the Persian Safavid Empire, humbled by the Ottomans. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. Suleiman's father had conquered the area that is now Syria in 1516, using it as a wedge between the Mamluk sultanate and the Safavid Empire, where they had appointed Gazali as the governor. There followed during 1559–61 a conflict between the princes Selim and Bayezid over the succession to the throne, which ended with the defeat and execution of Bayezid. Maize. In April 1526, Suleiman began the march to the Danube. Suleiman gave the knights 12 days to gather their belongings, including weapons and religious icons, and leave the island on 50 ships provided by the Ottomans, with most of the knights immigrating to Sicily. Descendants of Central Asian nomads, the Ottoman Turks were not historically a naval power. Omissions? What were the main characteristics of the Ottoman and Safavid empires? Suleiman also reformed the tax system, dropping extra taxes imposed by his father and establishing a transparent tax rate system that varied according to people's income. The young Shahrukh was enthroned at Mashhad in October 1748 by Iranian nobles. The city fell to Suleiman's forces on August 29, 1521, removing the last obstacle to an Ottoman advance into Central Europe. Suleiman was born the only surviving son of Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire and Aishe Hafsa Sultan of the Crimean Khanate. Ê¿Ulamāʾ (specialists in Islamic law), notably AbÅ« al-SuÊ¿Å«d (Hoca Çelebi) and Kemalpaşazade, made the period memorable, as did the great Turkish poet Bâkî and the architect Sinan. At an early age he studied science, literature, theology, and the military arts in Istanbul. In addition to campaigns led by his viziers and admirals, Suleiman personally led 13 campaigns. Süleyman the Magnificent, byname Süleyman I or the Lawgiver, Turkish Süleyman Muhteşem or Kanuni, (born November 1494–April 1495—died September 5/6, 1566, near Szigetvár, Hungary), sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 who not only undertook bold military campaigns that enlarged his realm but also oversaw the development of what came to be regarded as the most characteristic achievements of Ottoman civilization in the fields of law, literature, art, and architecture. The first campaign (1534 - 1535) won the Ottomans control over a portion of eastern Asia Minor as well as most of Iraq. Added Egypt, Syria, and Arabia to ottoman lands. Selim also left his son a powerful navy, a first for a Turkic ruler. When Suleiman was 26 in 1520, Selim I died and Suleiman ascended the throne. Süleyman built strong fortresses to defend the places he took from the Christians and adorned the cities of the Islamic world (including Mecca, Damascus, and Baghdad) with mosques, bridges, aqueducts, and other public works. Along with the Mughal Empire in India, they were two of the three “Gunpowder Empires.” Muslim traditions influenced both empires. Although he was of age, his mother served as co-regent. On January 27, 1521, Suleiman defeated Gazali, who died in battle. Once more, Tahmasp refused to participate in a pitched battle, this time leading the Ottoman army up into the snowy, rugged terrain of the Caucasus Mountains. Shahbanu Begum Safavi Mir Sayyed Muhammad Marashi(June 1714 – May 1763), better known by his dynastic name of Suleiman II(Persian: شاه سلیمان‎), was a Safavidpretender who managed to briefly become ruler of some parts of Iran from 1749 to 1750. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Süleyman the Magnificent, byname Süleyman I or the Lawgiver, Turkish Süleyman Muhteşem or Kanuni, (born November 1494–April 1495—died September 5/6, 1566, near Szigetvár, Hungary), sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 who not only undertook bold military campaigns that enlarged his realm but also oversaw the development of what came to be regarded as the most characteristic … The first campaign (1534–35) won the Ottomans control over a portion of eastern Asia Minor as well as most of Iraq. Suleiman waged three major campaigns in Persia during his reign. The total duration of these campaigns was ten years and three months. The Ottomans won the Battle of Szigetvar on September 8, 1566, but Suleiman died of a heart attack the previous day. Suleiman sent out that siege in the form of an armada of 400 ships carrying at least 100,000 troops to Rhodes. Süleyman wrote poetry that is still highly acclaimed. Suleiman the Magnificent is remembered in Turkey as "Kanuni, the LawGiver." Between 1543 and 1562 the war in Hungary continued, broken by truces and with few notable changes on either side; the most important was the Ottoman capture of the Banat of Temesvár (Timișoara) in 1532. Suleiman the Magnificent (November 6, 1494–September 6, 1566) became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1520, heralding the "Golden Age" of the Empire's long history before his death. Suleiman retook Baghdad and was reconfirmed as the true caliph of the Islamic world. The second campaign some ten years later (1548–49) won some additional terrain around the strategically important Lake Van on the border of Persia and Asia Minor. Suleiman I (Persian: شاه سلیمان ‎) was a Safavid shah of Persia who reigned between 1666 and 1694. In 1521, he put down a revolt by the governor of Damascus, Canberdi Gazali. modernized the army and conquered new … On August 29, 1526, Suleiman defeated King Louis II of Hungary in the Battle of Mohacs and supported the nobleman John Zapolya as the next king of Hungary. Suleiman I / ˌsʊlɪˈmɑːn /, known as “the Magnificent” in the West and “Kanuni” (the Lawgiver) in the East, (6 November 1494 – 7 September 1566) was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of … Updates? As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever-present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia.Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. His second wife, a former Ukrainian concubine named Hurrem Sultan, was the love of Suleiman's life and gave him seven sons. Suleiman, busy in Hungary and Austria, sent his grand vizier with a second army to retake Bitlis in 1533, which also seized Tabriz, in present-day northeastern Iran, from the Persians. Khayr al-DÄ«n, known in the West as Barbarossa, became kapudan (admiral) of the Ottoman fleet and won a sea fight off Preveza, Greece (1538), against the combined fleets of Venice and Spain, which gave to the Ottomans the naval initiative in the Mediterranean until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. All Ottoman citizens, even the highest, were subject to the law. Nonetheless, Suleiman's father established an Ottoman seafaring legacy in the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and even the Indian Ocean beginning in 1518. In 1522, he conquered Rhodes, allowing the Knights of St. John to depart freely. Most of them decided to stay when the Ottoman Empire took nearly complete control of the eastern Mediterranean. Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi, better known by his dynastic name of Suleiman II ( Persian: شاه سلیمان ‎‎), was a Safavid pretender who managed to briefly become ruler of some parts of Persia from 1749 to 1750. In 1526 he invaded Hungary again, defeating and killing King Lajos (Louis II) at Mohács. Its ruler, Shah Tahmasp, sought to extend Persian influence by assassinating the Ottoman governor of Baghdad and replacing him with a Persian puppet, and by convincing the governor of Bitlis in eastern Turkey to swear allegiance to the Safavid throne. He was in charge of the affairs of the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad. Suleiman's navy also managed to drive troublesome newcomers to the Indian Ocean system, the Portuguese, out of a key base at Aden on the coast of Yemen in 1538. His campaigns of 1541 and 1543 led to the emergence of three distinct Hungarys—Habsburg Hungary in the extreme north and west; Ottoman Hungary along the middle Danube, a region under direct and permanent military occupation by the Ottomans and with its main centre at Buda; and Transylvania, a vassal state dependent on the Porte and in the hands of John Sigismund, the son of John Zápolya. Süleyman surrounded himself with administrators and statesmen of unusual ability, men such as his grand viziers (chief ministers) Ä°brahim, Rüstem, and Mehmed Sokollu. They landed on June 26, 1522, and laid siege to the bastions full of 60,000 defenders representing various western European countries: England, Spain, Italy, Provence, and Germany. The ruler of Persia, or the Safavid empire. France aligns with the Ottomans. In general, Süleyman completed the task of transforming the previously Byzantine city of Constantinople into Istanbul, a worthy centre for a great Turkish and Islamic empire. In 1529, Suleiman marched on Hungary once more, taking Buda from the Hapsburgs and then continuing to besiege the Hapsburg capital at Vienna. He was crowned on November 1, 1666 with the title Shah Safi II. The Shah's army avoided him and forced a stalemate. The sultan, preoccupied with affairs in the East and convinced that Austria was not to be overcome at one stroke, granted a truce to the archduke Ferdinand in 1533. On October 11 and 12 of that year, they attempted another siege against 16,000 Viennese defenders, but Vienna managed to hold them off once more and the Turkish forces withdrew. Perhaps best known for his overhaul of the Ottoman government during his reign, Suleiman was known by many names, including "The LawGiver." Hurrem Sultan knew that according to the rules of the harem,​ if Mustafa became sultan he would have all of her sons killed to prevent them from trying to overthrow him. The local people of Rhodes also received generous terms and had three years to decide whether they wanted to remain on Rhodes under the Ottoman rule or move elsewhere. Unfortunately, Selim had none of the good qualities of his half-brother and is remembered in history as "Selim the Drunkard.". During Suleiman's reign, Ottoman ships traveled to Mughal India's trading ports, and the sultan exchanged letters with the Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great. Ferdinand was forced to renounce his claim to be king of Hungary and had to pay tribute to Suleiman, but even as all of these events happened to the north and west of Turkey, Suleiman also had to keep an eye on his eastern border with Persia. The later years of Süleyman were troubled by conflict between his sons. The Ottoman sultan gained territory in Georgia and the Kurdish borderlands between Turkey and Persia but was unable to come to grips with the Shah. As sultan, Suleiman would lead 13 major military expeditions and spend more than 10 years of his 46-year reign out on campaigns. Süleyman ruled at the same time as King Henry VIII of England as well as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Under Süleyman, advances were made in textiles, ceramics, the painting of manuscripts, and calligraphy. Mustafa had become by 1553 a focus of disaffection in Asia Minor and was executed in that year on the order of the sultan. Suleiman was fascinated by Alexander the Great in his youth and would later program military expansion that has been attributed to being inspired in part by Alexander's conquests. Military Campaigns Having lost territories to the Shah of Persia, Suleiman recaptured them and laid waste to parts of Persia, torching cities in a vengeful rage. At 17 he was appointed governor of Kaffa by his grandfather, and he was made governor of Manisa during the reign of his father, Sultan Selim I. Suleiman I of Persia (es); I. Szulajmán perzsa sah (hu); شاه سلیمان (azb); Safi II. Süleyman waged three major campaigns against Persia. He was in charge of … At Mohács, in August 1526, Süleyman broke the military strength of Hungary, the Hungarian king, Louis II, losing his life in the battle. Following Suleiman's departure, the Hungarian Diet elected János Sza… As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia. To keep it from putrefying, the heart and other organs were removed and buried in Hungary. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He was in charge of the affairs of the Holy Shrine in Mashhad. Süleyman died of natural causes during a campaign to besiege the fortress of Szigetvár in Hungary. He ruled the kingdom for over four decades marking the longest rule in the history of Ottoman Empire and emerged as a leading ruler of Europe during 16th century. The Safavid Persian Empire that ruled much of southwestern Asia was one of the Ottomans' great rivals and a fellow "gunpowder empire." Suleiman the Magnificent leading the Ottoman forces during the Battle of Mohács. Süleyman codified a centralized legal system (kanun) for the Ottoman state, expanded both the territory and the revenue of the empire, and built up Constantinople (Istanbul) as the empire’s capital. But the Hapsburgs in Austria put forward one of their princes, Louis II's brother-in-law Ferdinand. The Ottoman sultan did not give up on the idea of taking Vienna, but his second attempt in 1532 was similarly hampered by rain and mud and the army never even reached the Hapsburg capital. In 1566, the 71-year-old Suleiman the Magnificent led his army on a final expedition against the Hapsburgs in Hungary. Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Knights Hospitallers' piracy even imperiled Muslims who set sail to make the haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca that is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During the intervening decades, the Knights used the labor of enslaved Muslims to strengthen and reinforce their fortresses on the island in anticipation of another Ottoman siege. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. With their infantry corps d’élite...…. Süleyman himself died while besieging the fortress of Szigetvár in Hungary. As always, the Shah avoided open battle, but Suleiman marched into the Persian heartland and laid it to waste. Suleiman’s engineers begin canal to connect Rhine and Danube to protect Ottoman interests in their Western Empire. The vacant throne of Hungary was now claimed by Ferdinand I, the Habsburg archduke of Austria, and by John (János Zápolya), who was voivode (lord) of Transylvania, and the candidates of the “native” party opposed to the prospect of Habsburg rule. He decreed that all Ottoman soldiers would pay for any food or other property they took as provisions while on a campaign, even while in enemy territory. She started a rumor that Mustafa was interested in ousting his father from the throne, so in 1553 Suleiman summoned his eldest son to his tent in an army camp and had the 38-year-old strangled to death. Suleiman's reforms gave the Ottoman Empire a recognizably modern administration and legal system more than 450 years ago. The Safavid Dynasty built a powerful empire in Persia. The new sultan immediately launched his program of military conquest and imperial expansion. Belgrade, part of modern Serbia, belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary in Suleiman's time. Heritage Images / Contributor / Getty Images. He completely overhauled the formerly piecemeal Ottoman legal system, and one of his first acts was to lift the embargo on trade with the Safavid Empire, which hurt Turkish traders at least as much as it did Persian ones. The greatest of the Ottoman Sultan, a titan of law, culture, and war, Suleiman's reign saw the conquest of Persia and European territory, while at the same time laws were reformed and culture went through a period of exceptional flourishing and monumental building.

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